Psychological counselling for refugees
From a psychological point of view, the experience of refuge is characterized by trauma in all its stages: pre-migration, migration, establishment in the country of asylum and eventual integration into a new, less well-known society. The reason why the psychologist’s first approach in providing assistance to a refugee is to give a thorough account of all the traumatic events that marked his life, of the specificity of each person and the consequences on his mental health. The first stage of pre-migration triggering the migration process itself is generally the stage of direct confrontation with violent traumatic events: oppressive political conditions, detention, rape, torture, death of family members and / or relatives. The move to another country is sometimes just as traumatic, and the refugee can go through armed conflict zones where he can become victim, or may witness the same atrocities as in the country of origin. Refugees are often forced to walk on foot, being exposed to hunger, dehydration, hypothermia or other physical suffering. For some, the trauma continues even after they get safely, the trauma is not post, it is in progress. Leaving behind friends, families, homes, making a dangerous journey and then rebuilding their lives facing poverty, hostility or other stressors can be just as traumatic. The role of the psychological counselor is to help the refugee escape the feeling of inferiority and alienation, to realize the negative effects of permanence of a feeling which to a certain point is natural for anyone who is confronted with a new situation and, at the same time, to help him identify and to value those valuable aspects of personality that increase confidence and self-esteem.
Keywords: refugee, trauma, psychological counseling, integration into society
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